1. The individual begins to drink more than those around him/her.

2. The individual begins to drink more frequently than others.

3. With increasing frequency, the individual goes beyond the allowed license for drinking behavior.

4. He begins to experience "blackouts" or temporary amnesia during and following a drinking episode.

5. He drinks more rapidly than others. He gulps his drinks.

6. They begin to sneak drinks.

7. He begins to lose control as to time, place, and the amount of drinking. He drinks -­and oftens gets drunk -- at inappropriate times and places when he did not intend to.

8. He hides and protects his liquor supply so he will never be caught short.

9. He drinks to overcome the hangover effects of his prior drinking.

10. He tries new patterns of drinking as to time, place, amounts and what he drinks.

11. He attempts "geographical" cures by moving or "traveling" cures by seeking out different drinking groups -- usually of a lower social status.

12. He becomes a "loner" in his drinking. Ingestion of alcohol becomes the sole purpose of drinking.

13. He develops an elaborate system of lies, alibis, excuses, and rationalizations to cover up or to explain his drinking.

14. He has personality and behavioral changes -- even when not drinking -- which adversely affect his family situation, his friendship groups or on-the-job relationships. Accidents, job losses, family quarrels, broken friendships, and trouble with the law may take place, not just when he is under the influence of alcohol, but even when he is not.

15. Characteristics of the final phases are obvious and tragic; extended binges, physical tremors, hallucinations and deliria, complete rejections of social reality, malnutrition with accompanying illnesses and diseases -- and an early death.


The above deviations appear gradually but with increasing frequency and intensity over a period of years until eventually they are all invariably present.




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